More Open Woods on Uplands

More open woods on uplands: intermixed with deeper woods but con-centrated along edges and also promoted by trails through the woods.
This was formerly maintained by bison and other herbivores.

Typical soils: nutrient-rich soils on steeper slopes (hapludalfs) and deeper ancient soils on gentler slopes (paleudalfs). More open woods with “rich herbage” may have occurred on more organic soils (argiudolls).

Typical trees: include black walnut, slippery elm, hackberry, white ash and red mulberry. In more disturbed or open areas: shellbark hickory, bur oak (and other oaks), coffee-tree, cherry and the locusts.

Smaller trees and shrubs: include pawpaw, hawthorns and coralberry.

Typical wildflowers and grasses: These would include Miami mist, wild chervils, germander and the wild ryes. Rarer species for recovery include running buffalo clover and giant wood-lettuce.

For more details: at, section D in “Central Bluegrass Plants”; also “Bluegrass Woodland and its Eutrophic Nature”. In Nature Preserves system, see their “Bluegrass Woodland” in part.

Woodland-pasture: such areas were greatly increased by settlers thinning the original woods, but may resemble trails and glades used by bison.

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